Malayalam is an really old language & was born in india.
Below the advice of A Balakrishna Pillai a progressive college of authors appeared beneath in nearly all branches of literature such as novel, limited tale, drama and criticism.
And a latest visit to Hyderabad for a seminar one particular of the participitant’s amazed me by speaking in Malayalam. When I requested him the purpose for undertaking so he stated that the shape of my beard ands nose resembled the Nairs of Kerala. Unknowingly he experienced created my working day. When I went to Calcutta they considered I experienced Bengali appears, in Punjab my surname made them realize that I am Punjabi, in Maharashtra i.e. the place I live my pals notify me that I have the simplicity of a Maharashtrian and now becoming called a Keralite. A Nadi astrologers informed me that in my earlier birth I experienced lived in Andhra Pradesh. I belong to ‘Bharat, the Land of Expertise, my faith is Sanatan Dharam and caste is Mental Kshatriya’.
On the other hand Rama-charitam which was composed in the 14th century may possibly be explained to have inaugurated M literature just as Naniah’s Mahabharatam did for Telegu. The truth is that dialectical and regional peculiarities experienced previously produced and stamped themselves in neighborhood music and ballads. But these linguistic variants have been at previous gathered jointly and made to give a coloring to a sustained literary perform, Rama-charitam, thereby supplying the new language, a justification and lease of existence. This is roughly the story of M.
Dance, drama, literature was carefully associated with the individuals living in the temples largely Nambudiri Brahmans. Caste Hindus like Nairs who fashioned the greater part of the populace ended up subdivided into several clans, were not directly involved in cultural and spiritual activities. At this time arrived K Nambiar who belonged to the middleman community of temple servants expounded a new solo dance artwork called Tullal for which he himself wrote a lot more than fifty performs, all in basic, but stylish verse. He selected Puranic themes for his dance recitals but he retold the tales in a various way. He narrated the tales in the social history of his occasions, changing all Puranic characters into common human beings.
Social Dramas – C V Raman Pillai was a pioneer in prose dramas. He had a particular knack to create dramas in a lighter vein. His Kurupillakalari in 1909 marks the look of the first unique M prose drama. It is a satirical drama supposed to ridicule the Malayali official lessons who commenced imitating Western fashions and etiquettes. There had been other authors also.
It was throughout this period of time that Christian missionaries created their contribution to M by compiling dictionaries in the language, translating the Bible into straightforward professionals and verse on Biblical themes. Thanks to these foreigners, a revolution in prose writing was influenced, releasing it totally from the bondage of pedantic Sanskrit design. Books on astronomy, astrology, maths and drugs have been prepared by students in Sanskrit.
The M language, with the introduction of a new variety of devotional literature, underwent a metamorphosis, both in kind and content material, and it is typically held that modernity in M, language and literature commenced at this period. This adjust was brought about by Thunchathu Ezhuthachan TE (16th century) who is identified to be the father of modern day M. Till this time M indicated two various courses of growth based on its partnership with both Sanskrit or Tamil.
Any ‘A’ fulfills its objective if it affords a variety of scenes depicting various varieties of figures, and every single scene would have its own hero with the Rasa related with that character. When that hero is portrayed he is given utmost relevance to the utter neglect of the principal sentiment (rasa) of the topic in common. Even so, the function of ‘A’ is not to present a theme with a effectively knit emotional plot as its central level, but to current all accepted varieties of people currently set to suit the approach of the art of Kathakali.
By the fifteenth century the existence of M as a separate language obtained accepted.
The Age of Swathi Thirunal – The literary and cultural historical past of Kerala in the course of this period of time has to be seen in opposition to political problems throughout this period. Although divided into three distinct political units i.e. Travancore, Cochin & Malabar, Kerala remained a single cultural unit. Travancore and Cochin had appear below British power because of to treaty obligations although Malabar was part of the Madras Presidency. All these political units were influenced by the new program of administration that the Brits introduced in India.
1905 to 1947
Post Ezhuthachan period – many Puranas were created during this interval closely imitating his fashion. The interval immediately pursuing that of TE is for that reason known as the Bhakti Yuga, the age of devotional literature in M. Narayana Bhattatiri, the author of the immortal Sanskrit Bhakti-kavya ‘ Narayamyam’ was a contemporary of TE. The most well known writers who followed TE’s footsteps was Poonam Nambudiri, the author of Jnanappana, a philosophical perform in basic M.
Pre-Ezhuthachan period – The literary custom consisted of 3 early manipravalam Champus, a couple of Sandesa Kavyas and innumerable amorous compositions on courtesans of Kerala, which throb with literary beauty and poetical fancies, mixed with a relishing touch of realism about them with regard to the then social conditions. Several prose functions in the form of commentaries of Puranik episodes sort the bulk of the classical performs in M.
As regards literature, the leading figures were Irayimman Thampi and Vidwan Koithampuran the two poets of the king. Their operates abound in a lovely and satisfied blending of songs and poetry. The former is surely the most musical poet of Kerala and his gorgeous lullaby commencing with the line Omana Ttinkalkitavo has attained him an eternal name. But the purpose why he is held in this kind of large esteem in M is the contribution he has manufactured to Kathakali literature by his a few performs namely Dakshayagam, Kichakavadham and Uttara-svayamvaram. The latter’s Kathakali function Ravana Vijayam has made him immortal in literature.
It was for the duration of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries that afterwards Champu kavyas ended up composed. Their specialty was that they contained both Sanskritic and indigenous elements of poetry in equivalent degree, to that extent ended up special.
The Ramayanam was followed by Mahabharatam a work of fantastic literary excellence. The very good thing about this work is that the description, figures of speech and portrayal of people have something peculiar about the daily life of Kerala in them. The Holy Gita was one more essential perform.
Devotional literature in M found its heyday for the duration of the early period of this period. Ezhuthachan referred to previously mentioned gave emphasis to the Bhakti cult. Jnanappana by Puntanam Nambudiri is a special work in the department of philosophical poetry. Composed in simple language, it is a honest technique to the advaita philosophy.
By the dawn of the 18th century M literature was in its total bloom many thanks to the contribution of Ezhuthachan who is appeared upon as the father of modern M. His translation of Adhyatma Ramayanam and Bharatam introduced about a revolution in M language in so much as it underwent a complete adjust in vocabulary and fashion, liberating by itself from the bondage of archaic forms almost akin to Tamil, with a bias for Sanskrit. It was his functions that standardized the language of Kerala. Modern day M has not modified thereafter.
Language - Coming again to Malayalam (M) it is spoken largely of the state of Kerala and adjoining locations. As Malai signifies mountain the word M obviously refers to both folks or the language of the mountainous region. Until about a thousand several years in the past Tamil was the spoken language there with a quantity of nearby variations. It is mentioned that M as a spoken language was not referred to in Tamil literature ahead of the 15th century.
This report is almost verbatim from the Heritage and Culture of Indian People revealed by the Bharitya Vidya Bhavan. Following that when compared notes with the Cultural Heritage of India by the Ramakrishna Mission and produced additions thereafter.
Influence of English Education – The progress of literature in the Cochin and Malabar locations in the course of this period was motivated by the advancement of English education in these areas. The academic pursuits of the missionaries belonging to the Basel Mission (conversion initiatives notwithstanding) should have specific point out. It was underneath their auspices that Dr Gundert, a German missionary of excellent linguistic abilities, created by his personal private effort the M-English Dictionary, which even nowadays remains an authoritative perform. Many thanks to the attempts of kings like Swathi Thirunal and the assistance provided by him to the Church Mission and London Mission Societies a amount of colleges had been commenced.
Quick Stories came into becoming. With the arrival of E V Krishna Pillai, specific marks of novelty grew to become obvious in the short tale. His Keleesoudham confirm his capacity to compose with substantial psychological attractiveness.
Poetry – the Romantic Impact – Kumaran Asan’s celebrated poem, Vina Puva (the fallen flower) depicts in a symbolic manner the tragedy of human daily life in a moving and thought provoking fashion. Vallathol’s Bandhanasthanaya Aniruddhan that has extremely excellent energy of creativity and deep psychological faculties depicts a situation from the Puranic tale of Usha and Aniruddha. Ulloor S P Iyer was one more veteran to be a part of the new college. He wrote a series of poems like Oru Mazhathulli in which he excelled as a passionate poet.
Besides the Raja of Kottarakkara and Unnayi Varyar referred to previously mentioned almost hundred performs have been composed during the century by poets belonging to all categories and specifications. Irayimman Tampi, Ashvati Raja to title a few.
What Tulsidasa did to Hindi TE did for M. His initial operate was a translation of the Ramayanam from Sanskrit. His function was hailed by one and all. The devotional element blended with Vedantic views most artistically joined with the story of Lord Ram opened a new chapter in M literature. Ultimately it turned so common that a copy of the Adhyatma Ramayanam was there in every single Hindu residence, manufactured it a level to read through it. The diversified qualities of the language of Kerala little by little disappeared and merged into this newborn design, which proceeds to this working day.
The latest analysis demonstrates that M as a individual spoken language in Kerala commenced exhibiting impartial lines of development from its parental tongue Tamil, preserving the idiosyncrasies of the earliest Dravidian tongue, which only in due training course, gave start to the literary kind of Tamil, particularly Sen Tamil and M, the spoken sort of it is prevalent in Kerala. Even so, till the 13th century there is no tough proof to demonstrate that the language of Kerala had a literary tradition apart from folks tunes.
Novels – The early decades of the 20th century observed the commencing of a period of speedy growth of all branches of M literature. A good number of authors common with the most current traits in English literature arrived forward to lead in direction of the enrichment of their mother tongue. Their efforts have been directed a lot more to the growth of prose than poetry.
Among the first novels composed at that time only a couple of are really worth mentioning this sort of as Bhootha Rayar by Appan Thampuran, Keraleswaran by Raman Nambeesan and Cheraman Perumal by K K Menon. Though a large quantity of social novels had been produced throughout this period, only a few are remembered this kind of as Snehalatha by Kannan Menon, Hemalatha by T K Velu Pillai and Kambola-balika by N K Krishna Pillai. But by significantly the most inspiring perform of that time was Aphante Makal by M B Namboodiri, who directed his literary abilities in direction of abolition of previous worn-out customs and manners which had for several years been the bane of the local community.
Originally M was no a lot more than a neighborhood dialect of pure Tamil. Political isolation and local conflicts, the influence of Christianity and Islam, the arrival of the Nambudiri Brahmans a tiny above a thousand a long time back, all developed situations favorable to an impartial of the nearby dialect M. The Nambudri grafted a very good offer of Sanskrit on the neighborhood dialect and influenced its physiognomy. Common and religious tracks ended up composed 1st. Presently, the phenomenal popularity of Kamban’s Tamil Ramayana led in course of time to a related model in the local dialect.
An era favorable to the expansion of literary and cultural exercise dawned on Kerala like elsewhere with the difference that owing to the popular desire taken by the rulers of Travancore and Cochin in the unfold of education on Western strains and in adoption of British techniques of administration, the new orientation of tradition got a greater impetus in these states.
1526 to 1707
It took almost two centuries to evolve a content blending of the scholarly Sanskrit and popular styles to provide M prose to its present sort, abundant in vocabulary with Sanskrit language but at the very same time adaptable, pliable and effective with well-liked parlance.
The progress of journalism also assisted in the development of prose. Initiated by Missionaries for the goal of religious propaganda, journalism was taken up by nearby students who began newspapers and journals for literary and political pursuits.
Closely following the earlier mentioned craze were students who arrived underneath the affect of English poetry. A R Raja Raja Varma, Professor of M in the Maharaja’s University Trivandrum, gave direct to the new movement. He emphasised the value of sentiments in poetry as in contrast to kind, attacked the tendency of poets who gave undue significance to uniformity in audio and opposed the predominance of Sanskrit words in M verse.
In accordance to this ebook, the Manipravala and Pattu types of literary compositions have been in vogue for the duration of this time period. Pattu indicates song and a lot more or significantly less signifies the pure M faculty of poetry. From the definition of the Pattu type provided in Lilatikalam, it can be surmised that the language of Kerala during this interval was far more or much less in line with Tamil but this has misled a lot of folks to think improperly that M was alone Tamil throughout this period and just before.
1707 to 1818
You would be intrigued to know that a amount of Bengali novels were translated during this period. C S S Potti pointed out previously mentioned also brought out the Lake of Palms of R C Dutt under the tile Thala Pushkarani, Kapalakundala by V K Thampi and Visha Vruksham by T C Kalyani Amma ended up also translations of novels by Bankim0chandra Chatterji.
The dominant be aware of his works was humor and satire. His functions enlightened and educated people, created a social consciousness among them. Ramapurattu Varyar, a up to date of Nambiar who wrote only one particular first poetic function, Kuchelavrittam, the tale of Kuchela or Sudama, is considered to be the early morning star of contemporary M lyrics. Several missionaries wrote functions on grammar.
Drama and Poetry – On poetry there had been two major trends – a single represented by Venmani Nampoodiris and the other by Kerala Varma. The latter’s poetry was modeled on the outdated Manipravala design abounding in Sanskrit phrases and conditions, but it had a allure of its possess when tailored to categorical new suggestions in a masterly way characteristic of himself. His translation of Kalidasa’s Sakuntalam in 1882 marks an important celebration in the heritage of M drama & poetry. Also Kerala Varma’s Mayura-sandesam is a Sandesakavya (messenger poem) created soon after Kalidasa’s Meghadutam. Even though it cannot be when compared with the first it was nonetheless one particular of the most commonly acclaimed poems in M.
The earliest literary perform in M now offered is a prose commentary on Chanakya’s Arthasastra, ascribed to the 13th century. A poetical work Vaisikatantram are also considered to belong to the early 14th century. These operates occur under a specific group known as Manipravalam, literally the mix of two languages, the language of Kerala and Sanskrit. A grammar and rhetoric on this hybrid type was prepared some time in the 14th century in Sanskrit and the perform named Lilatikalam, is the main resource of details for a pupil of literary and linguistic history.
The main literary output of the century was in the type of neighborhood plays composed for the art of kathakali, the dance dramas of Kerala also identified as Attakkatha. It looks the Gitagovinda of Jayadeva gave a design to this kind of literary composition. The verses in Sanskrit narrate the tale and the dialogue is composed in imitation of music in Gitagovinda, set to audio in appropriate ragas of classical Karnatak style.
Unnayi Varyar, whose Nalacharitan Attakkatha is common even nowadays, was the most distinguished poet 18th century among not only the Kathakali writes, but also between the classical poets of Kerala. He is usually referred to as the Kalidasa of Kerala. Despite the fact that Kathakali is a dance drama and its literary form must a lot more or significantly less be on the model of drama, there is practically nothing typical amongst a ‘A’ and Sanskrit drama.
The Pattu (a sutra is devoted to outline this pattern termed there as pattu) university also has significant operates like Ramacharitam (12th century), Bhagavad Gita (14th century) by a set of poets belonging to one household called Kannassas. Some of them like Ramacharitam have a near resemblance to Tamil language throughout this time period. This is to be attributed to the impact of Tamil performs on indigenous poets belonging to places that lie near to the Tamil nation.
Venmani Nampoodiris have been upholders of the pure M style. The Junior Venmani’s Puraprabandham, a descriptive poem on the well-known temple pageant at Trichur and other works abound in wit and humor. They had been considerably appreciated because of to their attractiveness, simplicity of manner and melody of diction.
Attakkatha (‘A’) Age – ‘A’ literature, closely pursuing the Champu fashion in the use of Sanskrit and Malayalam with a definite objective and motive is the first sort. Attam in M implies the ‘dance or drama’ and Katha, a Sanskrit term implies ‘story’. ‘A’ are consequently stories created for a variety of dance drama identified as Kathakali. Bharata’s Natyasastra experienced grow to be by the time, a handbook of the Chakyars, and the classic actors of Sanskrit dramas in temples. Most of these dramas were confined to temple premises.
The time period that adopted may possibly rightly be called the age of Swathi Thirunal (Maharaja of Travancore 1829-1847). A wonderful scholar in numerous Indian languages he tried out his hand at poetic and musical compositions in M, Sanskrit, Tamil, Telegu, Hindi and Marathi. Realized gentlemen from all over the nation flocked to his courtroom to screen their talents. It was the age of Thyagaraja, Muthuswami D and Syama Sastri in South Indian Music.
On the other hand, the principles of dramaturgy to be noticed in composing a particular variety of Sanskrit drama are fully overlooked by an author of ‘A’. Delineation of a certain Rasa is an inescapable function with Sanskrit drama whilst in an ‘A’ all the predominant Rasas are given full therapy and consequently the theme of an ‘A’ often loses its integrity and creative unity when viewed as a literary work.
Kunjan Nambiar, the people’s poet of Kerala, lived in this century. He introduced about a revolution in the cultural and spiritual outlook of the individuals by bringing art and literature from its substantial and pedantic sphere down to the well-known standard.
Prose Literature – The institution of the Madras College in 1857 marks an important event in the cultural history of Kerala. It is from listed here that a generation of scholars nicely versed in Western literature and with the potential to enrich their personal language by adopting Western literary trends, arrived into currently being. Prose was the 1st branch to acquire an impetus by the get in touch with with English. Although there was no shortage of prose in M it was not on western strains. It was remaining to the farsighted coverage of the Maharaja of Travancore, 1861 to 1880 to begin a plan for the preparing of textbooks for use by faculties in the condition. Kerala Varma V, a scholar in Sanskrit, M and English was appointed Chairman of the Committee shaped to put together textbooks. He wrote numerous textbooks suited for various expectations.
The interval saw the best of classical poets like Unnayi Varyar, Nambiar flourished in the initial 50 % of the century. The literary output of this period of time taken care of a high top quality. The prose composing made its physical appearance during this period of time, inaugurating a new department of literature. The near of this century witnessed a decline in the top quality of literary generation.
The a few far more or less modern poets Asan, Vallathol and Ulor significantly enriched M poetry. Some of their functions mirror social and political movements of that time. Asan wrote about untouchability in Kerala, Ullor’s writings replicate his deep devotion and admiration for the excellent moral and religious values, which he believed have been the real assets of ancient social daily life of India. They have been acknowledged as the trio of M poetry. After them there ended up others like K K Nair and K M Panikkar who contributed to the expansion of poetry.
1818 to 1905
Contribution of Ezhuthachan or TE – It is from this qualifications that TE’s contribution demands to be assessed. M was by this time developed to be a automobile of suggestions, of even feelings like metaphysics, economics and politics. But as the language had been building in two different lines it turned the need to have to bring a diploma of uniformity of design. The credit score goes to TE whose writings turned a confluence of the two channels of linguistic currents. He borrowed from S its abundant lexicography but with a big difference that the mainstay of his fashion in creating verses rested on the indigenous faculty.
Novels – With his work Kundalata in 1887 Appu Nedungadi marks the origin of prose fiction in M. Other gifted writers ended up Chandu Menon, the writer of Indulekha, a great social novel in 1889 and another named Sarada. Also there was C V Raman Pillai, who wrote a historical novel Marttandavarma in 1890 and performs like Dharmaraja and Ramaraja Bahadur.
The Raja of Kottarakkara, a princely poet, 16th century wrote in M the story of Ramayana, styled as Ramanattam as from the tale of Lord Krishna referred to as Krishnattam. The complete Ramayana story was divided into 8 areas, they formed the basis of Ramanattam, which later on paved the way for the art of Kathakali. When yet another prince, the Raja of Kottayam, composed tales of the Mahabharata for the exact same purpose, he favored to phone it Kathakali and the literary composition was thereafter recognized as Attakkatha. A variety of Kathakali performs had been composed in the course of this period.
1 of the notable functions of the early a long time of the 20th century was the wonderful curiosity taken by writers to translate operates from Sanskrit and English into Malayalam Kalidasa’s Meghaduta and Kumarasambhava by A R Raja Raja and Raghuvamsa by K N Menon have to be pointed out. One particular of the most productive of the later translators was C S Subramaniam Potti who established a good model by his translation of Durgesanandini of Bankim Chandra from an English version of it.