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Serum 25(OH)D levels were measured by radioimmunoassay , ?and?, tandem mass spectrometry ?and?, or ELISA assay ?and?. Three studies , ?and? reported mean serum 25(OH)D levels with corresponding standard deviation. Another study  reported median values with a corresponding range. The remaining three studies , ?and? investigated the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency using the same cutoff value of 25(OH)D level selleck chemicals llc studies looking at the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency, two studies ?and? found that prevalence Adenine was higher in TB patients than healthy controls, while the third  found no difference. Interestingly, Ho-pham et?al.  found that the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency was higher in men with TB compared to healthy men, but determined that women with and without TB had a similar prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency. Talat et?al.  illustrated that otherwise healthy contacts of TB patients had an 8% rate of development of TB, and found that the majority of this 8% had very low serum 25(OH)D levels. Overall, the data analyzed finds that individuals with TB have lower serum levels of 25(OH)D than healthy, age-matched, sex-matched controls. Since anti-tuberculosis therapy may inadvertently cause a decline in 25(OH)D levels, we chose only studies that investigated untreated individuals. The similar prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency click here between TB patients and healthy controls in the study by Wejse et?al. may be due in part to the fact that the chosen controls were unmatched . Therefore, it is possible that the control group was not representative of a healthy population without comorbidities. Additionally, per the authors' report, dietary intake of the subjects was not adequately monitored during the entirety of the trial, thus introducing another potential source of inaccuracy. The finding by Ho-pham et?al.  of the vitamin D insufficiency discrepancy between men and women with and without TB is notable. They state that the underlying etiology of this difference is unclear. Potential explanations include the fact that men have a higher risk of acquiring TB than women, due to socioeconomic and health care disparities between the two genders. Additionally, there is evidence showing that estrogen may possibly have protective effects against TB . Furthermore, the prevalence of smoking in the male subjects with TB was much higher than in the male control group.