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, Roanoke, VA) was connected to the infusion harness and a weighted swivel apparatus (Instech, Plymouth Meeting, PA) was suspended above the box to allow for free movement within the chamber. Self-administration sessions were conducted 6 days/week to criterion (14 sessions?>?10 infusions). The house light remained on throughout the sessions and a response on the active lever resulted in activation of the pump and delivery of a 2-s meth infusion (17.5?��g/50?��l bolus for females and 20?��g/50?��l bolus for males) and a 5-s presentation of a stimulus complex (illumination of the white stimulus light over the active lever and activation of tone generator; 78?dB, Adriamycin 4.5?kHz), followed by a 20-s time-out. During the time-out period, responses on the active and inactive levers were recorded, but had no scheduled consequences. PR tests were conducted when stable self-administration was evident based on the criteria of 14 days with more than 10 reinforcers earned. Before tests, rats were injected with oxytocin (1?mg/kg) or vehicle. Test order was counterbalanced, and between tests, rats received a minimum of 2 self-administration sessions. During these tests, reinforcement was Pentamorphone contingent upon an increasing number of responses which incrementally increased through the following progression: 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, 15, 20, 25, 32, 40, 50, 62, 77, 95, 118, 145, 178, 219, 268, 328, 402, 492, 603 (Richardson and Roberts, 1996). Lever presses, infusions, and breakpoints were assessed for each test. Breakpoint was defined as the highest number of lever presses required by the rat to receive a single infusion. The session terminated if a rat failed to receive an infusion or sucrose pellet for 1?h or after a total of 5?h. LBH589 mouse Following self-administration, rats underwent 2?h daily extinction sessions for a minimum of 10 days, where responses on both the active and inactive levers were recorded, but had no scheduled consequences. Extinction criterion consisted of