The Inexplicable Magic Spell Of ankyrin Revealed

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Ratings of the two judges were averaged. Agreement of these two sets of scores was 97%. LG was significantly impaired with the familiar objects both in naming accuracy (Fig. 7C, tcrawford(6)?=??3.49, p?Selleckchem Quisinostat vs. controls: 6734?ms, tcrawford(6)?=?1.989, p?=?0.065). Although LG was significantly impaired at explicit object naming, he was nevertheless able to recognize a small proportion of the stimuli. We analyzed the results of the figure-ground task separately for those familiar stimuli that he could explicitly name and those that he could not name. We found that even for familiar stimuli that were explicitly recognizable he chose the cue-consistent region only 54% of the time. For unrecognized familiar stimuli he chose the cue-consistent region 64% of the time. This indicates that even when explicit recognition is intact, LG is unable to use this information to affect figure-ground assignment. In line with his previously observed object recognition difficulties, LG was significantly impaired in explicitly naming familiar stimuli. More importantly, the results of Experiment 4 showed a significant impairment of LG's ability to use familiarity cues in figure-ground organization even for the small ankyrin number of stimuli that he was able to explicitly name. In contrast, control participants successfully named almost twice as many stimuli as he did and consistently used familiarity to determine their figure-ground assignment. This outcome suggests that intermediate visual areas may play a critical role in mediating familiarity influences on figure-ground organization. Our results also suggest that familiarity influences can dissociate from local image-based figure-ground mechanisms that were shown to be intact in Experiments 1 and 2. An important and classic issue in perceptual organization is whether different processes occur relatively GSK3 inhibitor early or late (e.g. Palmer et al., 2003, Palmer and Nelson, 2000?and?Palmer and Rock, 1994) in time or higher vs. lower in the anatomical hierarchy of visual cortical areas. For instance, does figure-ground organization occur before object recognition or after (cf., Peterson, 1999?and?Peterson and Gibson, 1994a)? As described earlier, electrophysiological evidence suggests that familiarity influences on figure-ground processing can arise relatively early in time (Trujillo et al., 2010) and without explicit object recognition (Peterson et al., 2000). From our current work, the relative timing of familiarity influences and the processing of local figure-ground cues is not completely clear.